United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. World Urban. Prospect. 2018 Highlights (2019).
Sebastián-González, E., Dalsgaard, B., Sandel, B. & Guimarães, P. R. Macroecological trends in nestedness and modularity of seed-dispersal networks: Human impact matters. Glob. Ecol. Biogeogr. 24, 293–303 (2015).
Eötvös, C. B., Magura, T. & Lövei, G. L. A meta-analysis indicates reduced predation pressure with increasing urbanization. Landsc. Urban Plan. 180, 54–59 (2018).
Anders, J. L. et al. Comparison of the intestinal helminth community of the large Japanese field mouse (Apodemus speciosus) between urban, rural, and natural sites in Hokkaido, Japan. Parasitol. Int. 70, 51–57 (2019).
Abrams, P. A. & Rowe, L. The effects of predation on the age and size of maturity of prey. Evolution 50, 1052–1061 (1996).
Sheriff, M. J., Krebs, C. J. & Boonstra, R. The ghosts of predators past: Population cycles and the role of maternal programming under fluctuating predation risk. Ecology 91, 2983–2994 (2010).
Vollset, K. W., Barlaup, B. T., Skoglund, H., Normann, E. S. & Skilbrei, O. Salmon lice increase the age of returning Atlantic salmon. Biol. Lett. 10, 20140085 (2014).
Medina, F. M. et al. A global review of the impacts of invasive cats on island endangered vertebrates. Glob. Change Biol. 17, 3503–3510 (2011).
Devictor, V., Whittaker, R. J. & Beltrame, C. Beyond scarcity: Citizen science programmes as useful tools for conservation biogeography. Divers. Distrib. 16, 354–362 (2010).
Hurlbert, A. H. & Liang, Z. Spatiotemporal variation in avian migration phenology: Citizen science reveals effects of climate change. PLoS ONE 7, e31662 (2012).
Li, E. et al. An urban biodiversity assessment framework that combines an urban habitat classification scheme and citizen science data. Front. Ecol. Evol. 7, 277 (2019).
Berger, J. Fear, human shields and the redistribution of prey and predators in protected areas. Biol. Lett. 3, 620–623 (2007).
Geffroy, B., Samia, D. S. M., Bessa, E. & Blumstein, D. T. How nature-based tourism might increase prey vulnerability to predators. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 755–765 (2015).
Loss, S. R., Will, T. & Marra, P. P. The impact of free-ranging domestic cats on wildlife of the United States. Nat. Commun. 4, 1396 (2013).
Tablado, Z. & Jenni, L. Determinants of uncertainty in wildlife responses to human disturbance. Biol. Rev. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12224 (2015).
Becker, M. & Buchholz, S. The sand lizard moves downtown—habitat analogues for an endangered species in a metropolitan area. Urban Ecosyst. 19, 361–372 (2016).
Chavez-Zichinelli, C. A. et al. How stressed are birds in an urbanizing landscape? Relationships between the physiology of birds and three levels of habitat alteration. Condor 115, 84–92 (2013).
Jiménez-Peñuela, J., Ferraguti, M., Martínez-de la Puente, J., Soriguer, R. & Figuerola, J. Urbanization and blood parasite infections affect the body condition of wild birds. Sci. Total Environ. 651, 3015–3022 (2019).
Birnie-Gauvin, K., Peiman, K. S., Gallagher, A. J., de Bruijn, R. & Cooke, S. J. Sublethal consequences of urban life for wild vertebrates. Environ. Rev. 24, 416–425 (2016).
Møller, A. P. Successful city dwellers: A comparative study of the ecological characteristics of urban birds in the western Palearctic. Oecologia 159, 849–858 (2009).
Bradley, C. A. & Altizer, S. Urbanization and the ecology of wildlife diseases. Trends Ecol. Evol. 22, 95–102 (2007).
Lazic, M. M., Carretero, M. A., Zivkovic, U. & Crnobrnja-Isailovic, J. City life has fitness costs: Lower body condition and increased parasite intensity in urban common wall lizards Podarcis muralis. Salamandra 53, 10–17 (2016).
Giraudeau, M., Mousel, M., Earl, S. & Mcgraw, K. Parasites in the city: Degree of urbanization predicts poxvirus and coccidian infections in house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). PLoS ONE 9, e86747 (2014).
Kellner, K. F., Page, L. K., Downey, M. & Mccord, S. E. Effects of urbanization on prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in intermediate host populations. J. Wildl. Dis. 48, 1083–1087 (2012).
Geue, D. & Partecke, J. Reduced parasite infestation in urban Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula): A factor favoring urbanization?. Can. J. Zool. 86, 1419–1425 (2008).
Arnold, E. N. Caudal autotomy as a defense. In Biology of the Reptilia (eds. Gans, C. & Huey, R. B.) 235–273 (Liss, 1988).
Higham, T. E., Russell, A. P. & Zani, P. A. Integrative biology of tail autotomy in lizards. Physiol. Biochem. Zool. 86, 603–610 (2013).
Itescu, Y., Schwarz, R., Meiri, S. & Pafilis, P. Intraspecific competition, not predation, drives lizard tail loss on islands. J. Anim. Ecol. 86, 66–74 (2017).
Bowker, R. W. A Comparative Behavioral Study and Taxonomic Analyses of Gerrhonotine Lizards (Arizona State University, Tempe, 1988).
Bateman, P. W. & Fleming, P. A. To cut a long tail short: A review of lizard caudal autotomy studies carried out over the last 20 years. J. Zool. 277, 1–14 (2009).
Tyler, R. K., Winchell, K. M. & Revell, L. J. Tails of the city: Caudal autotomy in the tropical lizard, Anolis cristatellus, in urban and natural areas of Puerto Rico. J. Herpetol. 50, 435–441 (2016).
Arnold, E. N. Evolutionary aspects of tail shedding in lizards and their relatives. J. Nat. Hist. 18, 127–169 (1984).
Bellairs, A. D. A. & Bryant, S. V. Autotomy and regeneration in reptiles. In Biology of the Reptilia (eds. Gans, C. & Billet, F.) 301–410 (Wiley, Hoboken, 1985).
Chapple, D. G. & Swain, R. Inter-populational variation in the cost of autotomy in the metallic skink (Niveoscincus metallicus). J. Zool. 264, 411–418 (2004).
Wright, S. A., Lane, R. S. & Clover, J. R. Infestation of the Southern Alligator Lizard (Squamata: Anguidae) by Ixodes pacificus (Acari: Ixodidae) and its susceptibility to Borrelia burgdorferi. J. Med. Entomol. 35, 1044–1049 (1998).
Tanner, D. & Perry, J. Road effects on abundance and fitness of Galápagos lava lizards (Microlophus albemarlensis). J. Environ. Manag. 85, 270–278 (2007).
Main, A. R. & Bull, M. The impact of tick parasites on the behaviour of the lizard Tiliqua rugosa. Oecologia 122, 574–581 (2000).
Stanley, T. R. et al. Changes in capture rates and body size among vertebrate species occupying an insular urban habitat reserve. Conserv. Sci. Pract. 2, e245 (2020).
Pellitteri-Rosa, D. et al. Urbanization affects refuge use and habituation to predators in a polymorphic lizard. Anim. Behav. 123, 359–367 (2017).
Rebolo-Ifrán, N. et al. Links between fear of humans, stress and survival support a non-random distribution of birds among urban and rural habitats. Sci. Rep. 5, 13723 (2015).